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  1. #1
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    Who's your daddy?

    Who's your daddy? Answer's at the drugstore
    Pharmacy chain markets DNA paternity tests in 30 states nationwide

    After two decades, Sean Reid of Surrey, British Columbia, discovered that
    he had a son. Fred Turley of Des Plaines, Ill., learned he didn’t have a
    daughter. And Wendy Lieb of Lewis Center, Ohio, made certain she wasn’t
    going to be a grandmother quite yet.

    In all three situations, crucial genetic information altered the lives of
    the people involved. And in each case, it came not from a doctor or other
    medical source, but from a $29.99 kit on a drugstore shelf.

    Reid, Turley and Lieb are among more than 800 customers who responded to
    the first wave of marketing for do-it-yourself DNA paternity tests sold as
    Identigene by Sorenson Genomics of Salt Lake City.

    Sales in three western states — Washington, Oregon and California — were so
    brisk last fall that Rite Aid Corp. expanded the product this week to some
    4,300 stores in 30 states across the country.

    “The running joke is that we’re the Maury Povich family,” said Reid, 37,
    who confirmed years of speculation about a former girlfriend’s son with a
    kit purchased at a Bellingham, Wash., store. “But why not do it privately?
    We did this as discreetly, as efficiently and as cost-effectively as

    For users like Reid, the tests provide easier answers to one of life’s
    crucial questions — Who’s your daddy? — said Douglas Fogg, chief operating
    officer of Identigene.

    “Everyone is purchasing the tests because they’re curious,” said Fogg, who
    expects to sell at least 52,000 tests this year. “They’re looking to
    establish questions about their own child or their own paternity.”

    But for genetics experts, drugstore marketing of DNA testing raises
    questions of accuracy and ethics.

    “From our perspective, direct-to-consumer genetic tests raise all the same
    issues for lax government oversight, potentially misleading or false
    advertising and the potential for making profound medical decisions on the
    basis of poorly interpreted or understood results,” said Rick Borchelt, a
    spokesman for the Genetics and Public Policy Center at Johns Hopkins

    At the very least, the kits have the potential to complicate the lives of
    the people who use them, legal experts cautioned.

    “We all need to take a step back and realize that this is different than
    many tests that you take,” said R. Alta Charo, a professor of law and
    bioethics at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. “This is a
    life-changing moment.”

    DNA tests join other diagnostic tools
    The paternity kits have taken their place on store shelves next to other
    diagnostic tests that don’t rely on DNA, including those for pregnancy, HIV
    and blood sugar, said Michael S. Watson, executive director of the American
    College of Medical Genetics.

    Unlike genetic tests for health conditions, tests that use DNA to determine
    paternity are fairly simple to provide and fairly easy to interpret, said
    Watson. They're subject to limited oversight, however, with no review
    required by the Food and Drug Administration and no certification required
    under the federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, or CLIA.

    The Identigene kit includes swabs for collecting cell samples from the
    inside of the cheeks of the child and the alleged father. Collection of the
    mother’s cells is optional, but strongly recommended to strengthen the
    results. The swabs are packaged and mailed to the Sorenson laboratory in
    Salt Lake City where they’re analyzed.

    The Sorenson lab is accredited by the AABB, the agency formerly known as
    the American Association of Blood Banks.

    Results are reported online, by phone or by mail in three to five business
    days. They come back as a probability figure that verifies paternity with
    98 percent to 99 percent accuracy, Watson said.

    Total cost is about $150, including the price of the kit and a $119
    laboratory processing fee. For another $200, users can purchase validated
    tests that meet legal requirements for determining paternity, Fogg said.

    Court use questionable
    But Susan Crockin, a lawyer who specializes in reproductive technology,
    said consumers shouldn’t count on the tests standing up in court.

    “The jury’s still very much out on these tests in terms of reliability and
    establishing a chain of custody,” said Crockin, a consultant for the Johns
    Hopkins public policy center.

    Most of the users who have been buying the kits — which have gone on sale
    for as low as $17.99 — don’t plan to use the results to resolve legal
    issues, Fogg acknowledged. Instead, most are looking to answer social
    questions. And that's where the complexity comes in.

    Because the cell samples are taken in private, there’s the potential for
    fraud and deception, noted Charo, the ethics expert.

    “I can imagine rather peculiar circumstances in which somebody has a swab
    taken without their knowledge,” she said. “It raises questions about
    informed consent.”

    Even when people do consent, the results can be unsettling. Watson
    estimates that between 5 percent and 10 percent of genetic tests he's
    conducted show a child is not related to the presumed father.

    “It could break up families,” Watson said. “Some will be broken because
    that was the goal. Others will be broken up and that wasn't the goal.”

    But people who’ve used the at-home tests swear by the ease, the accuracy —
    and the results.

    After 20 years, a mystery solved
    For Reid, the paternity test opened the door to a new extended family. He’d
    always wondered whether the baby born to a former girlfriend was his, even
    though she insisted the child was fathered by another man. When the
    girlfriend contacted Reid on Facebook last summer, the pictures she sent of
    her oldest son raised the question anew.

    “My wife, said ‘Oh my, that’s you,’” said Reid, a nurse.

    Internet research pointed Reid to the Identigene test, which was cheaper
    and more convenient than other options. With cooperation from his former
    girlfriend and her son, they all took the tests, with results that altered
    everyone’s lives.

    “Our newest son has a family he never knew he had including grandparents,
    aunts, and three younger brothers who are all very excited to meet him,”
    Reid said.

    For Fred Turley, 55, the DNA test confirmed what his companion had told
    him: the 4-year-old girl he helped care for was not his. The news was
    disappointing, but clear, he said.

    “The bottom line is, I don’t have to live with the uncertainty about her
    being my daughter and wind up in a fight just to find out,” Turley said.
    “This won’t change how I feel about the girl. It will just remove what had
    become a major concern.”

    For Wendy Lieb, 41, the DNA test restored her 20-year-old son’s future.
    He’d already quit college, taken a job and assumed the responsibilities of
    pending parenthood after a girl he had sex with at a party claimed she was
    pregnant with his child.

    ‘He just didn't look like my son at all.’
    Lieb said she was proud of her son’s response, but perplexed after the
    baby, a boy, was born.

    “He just didn’t look like my son at all,” Lieb said. “And we have fairly
    strong genes.”

    A trip to the drugstore and 10 days later, the answer was clear: her son
    was not the father.

    “I thought it would have required thousands of dollars and a trip to the
    doctor,” she said.

    Lieb is relieved for her own child, of course, but also for everyone
    involved. As difficult as the situation has been, she said, it will be
    easier for them to adjust now, rather than years later. The test may raise
    ethical questions, she said, but it also provides the peace of mind that
    comes with answers.

    “I think it’s a lot more ethical for you to find out the truth,” she said.

  2. #2
    Car 4's Avatar
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    Just fascinating!!! Every day, society comes up with another issue we couldn't possibly have dreamed of even a few years ago. The old chinese saying, "May you live in interesting times" certainly comes to mind.

    Car 4
    I would like my country back. I used to believe that one man could never destroy this country. Not so sure anymore!

  3. #3
    Ducky's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Car 4 View Post
    Just fascinating!!! Every day, society comes up with another issue we couldn't possibly have dreamed of even a few years ago. The old chinese saying, "May you live in interesting times" certainly comes to mind.

    Car 4
    Clarification for those in the cheap seats: "May you live in interesting times" wasn't a blessing. More like a curse.
    ` ` ` ` < ` )___/\
    `` ` ` ` (3--(____)
    "...but to forget your duck, of course, means you're really screwed." - Gary Larson



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